Archive for September, 2013

Questions for Homework DUE on Thursday 9/19

Posted in Colonial on September 17, 2013 by mrkufs

APUSH from American Pageant TEXT for 9/19

  1. Who were Congregationalists and where did they settle?
  2. Who discovered the “Fountain of Youth” and where?
  3. The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were distinctive in that…?
  4. Explain and describe characteristics of the Puritans in detail.

“Inside the World Trade Center”

Posted in 9/11/01 on September 9, 2013 by mrkufs

Documentary on 9/11/01 from the Discovery Channel.  This is just Part 1, find the other parts when finished with this one.  There are 9 in total.

Timelines for American Pageant Chapter 1,2, and 3

Posted in Colonial on September 8, 2013 by mrkufs

Chapter 1 American Pageant


33,000-8,000 B.C. – First humans cross into Americas from Asia.

5,000 B.C.             – Corn is developed as a stable crop in highland Mexico.

4,000 B.C.             – First civilized societies develop in the Middle East.

1,200 B.C.             – Corn planting reaches present-day American Southwest.

1,000 A.D.             – Norse voyagers discover and briefly settle in northeastern North America.

Corn cultivation reaches Midwest and southeastern Atlantic seaboard.

1,100 A.D.             – Height of Mississippian settlement at Cahokia.

1,100-1,300 A.D.   – Christian crusades arouse European interest in the East.

1295                       – Marco Polo returns to Europe.

Late 1400s             – Spain becomes united.

1488                       – Diaz rounds southern tip of Africa.

1492                       – Columbus lands in the Bahamas.

1494                       – Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal.

1498                       – Da Gama reaches India.  Cabot explores northeastern coast of North America for England.

1513                       – Balboa claims all lands touched by the Pacific Ocean for Spain.

1513, 1521             – Ponce de Leon explores Florida.

1519-1521              – Cortes conquers Mexico for Spain.

1522                       – Magellan’s vessel completes circumnavigation of the world.

1524                       – Verrazano explores eastern seaboard of North America for France.

1532                       – Pizarro crushes Incas.

1534                       – Cartier journeys up the St. Lawrence River.

1539-1542              – De Soto explores the Southeast and discovers the Mississippi River.

1540-1542              – Cabrillo explores present-day Southwest.

1542                       – Cabrillo explores California coast for Spain.

1565                       – Spanish build fortress at St. Augustine.

Late 1500s              – Iroquois Confederacy founded, according to Iroquois legend.

1598-1609              – Spanish under Onate conquer pueblo peoples of Rio Grande valley.

1609                       – Spanish found New Mexico.

1680s                     – French exploration down Mississippi River under La Salle.

1769                       – Serra founds first California mission, at San Diego.

Chapter 2 American Pageant

The Planting of English America



1558                        – Elizabeth I becomes queen of England

1565-1590               – English crush Irish uprising

1577                        – Drake circumnavigates the globe

1585                        – Raleigh founds Roanoke colony

1588                        – England defeats Spanish Armada

1603                        – James I becomes king of England

1604                        – Spain and England sign peace treaty

1607                        – Virginia colony founded at Jamestown

1612                        – Rolfe perfects tobacco culture in Virginia

1614                        – First Anglo-Powhatan War ends

1619                        – First Africans arrive in Jamestown.  Virginia House of Burgesses established

1624                        – Virginia becomes a royal colony

1634                        – Maryland colony founded

1640s                      – Large-scale slave-labor system established in English West Indies

1644                        – Second Anglo-Powhatan War

1649                        – Act of Toleration in Maryland.  Charles I beheaded; Cromwell rules England

1660                        – Charles II restored to English throne

1661                        – Barbados slave code adopted

1670                        – Carolina colony created

1711-1713               – Tuscarora War in North Carolina

1712                        – North Carolina formally separates from South Carolina

1715-1716               – Yamasee War in South Carolina

1733                        – Georgia colony founded

Chapter 3 American Pageant


1517                        – Martin Luther begins Protestant Reformation

1536                        – John Calvin of Geneva publishes Institutes of the Christian Religion

1620                        – Pilgrims sail on the Mayflower to Plymouth Bay

1624                        – Dutch found New Netherland

1629                        – Charles I dismisses Parliament and persecutes Puritans

1630                        – Puritans found Massachusetts Bay Colony

1635-1636               – Roger Williams convicted of heresy and founds Rhode Island colony

1635-1638               – Connecticut and New Haven colonies founded

1637                        – Pequot War

1638                        – Anne Hutchinson banished from Massachusetts colony

1639                        – Connecticut’s Fundamental Orders drafted

1642-1648               – English Civil War

1643                        – New England Confederation formed

1655                        – New Netherland conquers New Sweden

1664                        – England seizes New Netherland from Dutch, East and West Jersey colonies    founded

1675-1676               – King Philip’s War

1681                        – William Penn founds Pennsylvania colony

1686                        – Royal authority creates Dominion of New England

1688-1689               – Glorious Revolution overthrows Stuarts and Dominion of New England

Chapter 1/2 Notes for American Pageant

Posted in Uncategorized with tags on September 5, 2013 by mrkufs

I.    Overview—big ideas

  • By 1600 Europeans had created the world’s first truly global economy.
  • Meanwhile, the “age of discovery” resulted in the greatest human catastrophe the world has ever known: 90% of Native Americans killed by 1600; slavery of 10s of millions of Africans.
  • Cultural differences between the European and Americans was so immense that conflict was tragically inevitable in the 15th and 16th centuries.
  • Summary of relations between the three major colonial powers in America and the Native Americans
·Spain sought to Christianize and control the Indians (through the encomienda, hacienda and mission systems)
·The French sought to establish strong trade relations with the Indians; Jesuits sought to convert them.
  • ·English settlers often sought to either move Indians westward or annihilate them

II. Native Americans — approx. 100 million c. 1500 (high estimate); probably 50-70 million

A.Arrived more than 40,000 years ago via Bering Strait (called Beringia when it was

above land) and eventually spread to tip of S. America (by 8,000 B. C.)

1.First immigrants hunted animals for meat and furs; probably built small fishing vessels.

2.Beringia became isolated when Bering Strait under water c. 10,000 years ago

B. New research in origins of Americans.

1.Old Crow site in Yukon may be 50,000 years old.

2.French team in northeastern Brazil working on site that might be 48k years old.

3.1992, new archeological research suggests oldest inhabitants may have come from south Asia or even Europe before northern Asians as previously thought.

4.No evidence exists that humans lived in eastern Siberia (Russia) 30k years ago (only 12k years ago).

C.     By 8,000 B.C., Native Americans had reached tip of South America
1. Hundreds of tribes with different languages, religious & cultures inhabited America
2.    Between 4,000 and 1500 B.C. permanent farm villages came to dominate parts of 
Peru, south-central Mexico, northeastern Mexico, and southwestern U.S.

  • ·Grew maize, amaranth (a cereal), manioc (tapioca), chili peppers, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, & beans

D.   Developed civilizations (“sedentary societies”—non migratory)—late-Stone Age 
1.    Incas in Peru 
2.    Mesoamerica: Aztecs in Mexico, and Mayans in Yucatan (earlier) 
developed advanced agricultural techniques based primarily on corn.

§Built stone-carved cities rivaling many in Europe.

§Studied mathematics and astronomy

§Men and women worked fields and families saved surpluses for trade.

E.    North American natives less developed : most “semi-sedentary” by Columbus’ time 
1.    Most people lived in small scattered nomadic settlements. 
2.   Some agriculture, probably developed by women 
a.    Men were the hunters; women the gatherers. 
b.    Women did the farming (except tobacco); much “slash and burn” agriculture

c.    Europeans sought to turn men into farmers; Indian men saw it as

“women’s work”

                           i.    Europeans spoke of “reducing the Indian men to civility” 
                           ii.    Indian males enjoyed much leisure time (like European aristocracy)

3. Most NA societies matrilineal and matrilocal: women owned the property

      a. Men taught their children by persuasion and example.

      b. Few cared to acquire more property than could be carried from one site to


      c.  Antithesis to European capitalism; Europeans saw them as poor consumers

4.No individual land ownership (even in sedentary societies)

— Clans or families guarded their “use rights” to land allocated by chiefs.

5. Extensive trade in heartland (Ohio and Mississippi River valleys)

a.Most important man in the tribe was the man who gave the most away

b.Trade not like a contract in the European sense

c.When trade stopped it was tantamount to declaring war.

F.     Civilized societies in North America (exceptions to the predominance of less- 
developed tribes on the continent)

1.Pueblo Indians:Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico, Arizona, SW Colorado

a. Corn planting, elaborate irrigation systems, multi-storied and terraced dwellings

b. Some Pueblo villages still among oldest in N.A.

2. Mound Builder civilizations in the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys

a.Mississippianculture(e.g. Cahokia near E. St. Louis) perhaps rivaled

Egyptian architecture; home to as many as 40K people (c. 1000-1700 AD)

oCentral mound, 100 ft. high, world’s largest earthen work.

oLargest city north of Mexico

b.Iron tools, wore woven fabrics, buried dead in collective graves

c.Trade spanned from Appalachians to Rockies; Great Lakes to Gulf of Mexico.

3. Atlantic seaboard tribes began growing maize, beans, & squash (c.1000 AD)

a.    Creeks practiced democratic style government

    b.    Choctaw and Cherokee also prominent

4. Iroquois in eastern woodlands built a strong military confederacy

(led by Hiawatha, late 16th c.)

a.    Located in Mohawk Valley of what is today New York State

b.Iroquois Confederacy consisted of Five Nations: Mohawks, Oneidas,

Onondagas, Cayugas, and the Senecas.

c. The “longhouse” was the foundation of Iroquois culture: 8 to 200 ft in length.

G. Religious differences between Native Americans and Europeans

1.    Christian view:

        a. Bible: God gave Adam dominion over animals and plants.

        b. Bible did not mention Indians. What were they? Where did they come from?

        c. Sacrificial temples, skull racks, cannibalism and snake motifs of Mesoamerica

            meant Aztecs worshipped Satan in eyes of Europeans.

nYet, 100,000 “witches” killed between 1500-1700 in Europe

nSpanish Inquisition burned thousands

nIndians saw these too as human sacrifices

2. Native American view:

a.  Indians had nothing in comparison for commodification of plants and animals. 
b.  Christians ate their own god (Eucharist) but less outraged at lesser human

sacrifice to please Indian god. (Very confusing.) 
c.  Indians had no concept of heaven (in Christian sense); disliked Christian heaven

because few souls there were Indian; preferred to be buried with ancestors.

H.  Differences in War 
1.    Indians curious why Europeans sought decisive battles on battlefield. 
a.    Saw it as tremendous waste of humans who could be used for replenishment

or sacrifice

b.    Used guerrilla-type warfare. 
c.     Europeans made poor torture victims (except Jesuits) 
2.    Europeans could not easily catch Indian warriors. 
      a.    Resorted often to killing women and children.

— Pequot War in 1630s most gruesome example 
      b.   By King Philip’s War (1670s), Indians had learned this lesson well and 
           destroyed Puritan villages, killing non-combatants. 
3. Indians often captured children of other tribes and assimilated them. 
4. Adult warriors often sacrificed in MesoAmerica; Iroquois had all-night torture 
     ritual from “Mourning Wars” where Iroquois women sought retribution for death 
    of  a loved one (even if tortured warrior was not from same tribe). 
5.  European weapons deeply intensified warfare among Native Americans
     a.      Ohio region depopulated in late 17th century in matter of decades when 
              Iroquois defeated Hurons and Algonquins. 
     b.      1690s, French and Algonquins turn the tide and force Iroquois to neutrality.

IV.    European Explorers 
         A.    Non-Europeans came prior to Columbus but did not stay. 
                1.    Afro-Phoenicians c. 1000 B.C.-300 AD may have reached Central America 
                2.    West Africa (Mali) c. 1311-1460 sailed to Haiti, Panama, possibly Brazil

B. Vikings & Leif Erickson had temporary settlement at New Foundland c. 1000 AD 
C. European Motives for Exploration in the Age of Discovery

1.Emerging nation-states sought power and hoped to out-compete rivals

2.  New military technology enabled Europeans to dominate from c. 1500 on.

3.  Economics

a. Need for new markets esp. from the East (e.g., spices)

b. Mercantilism required new sources of precious metals, and furs.

4. Competition between Catholics and Protestants became conflict of national purposes

5. Science and technology allowed for extended exploration:

    1. Portuguese and Spanish mapped prevailing winds and currents in oceans over most of the globe.
    2. Studied, copied and improved designs of Arab vessels.
    3. Used compass and astrolab (for latitude).
    4. Mounted cannon on decks
6.   Renaissance (starting late 14th c. lasting well into 16th c.)
a. Atmosphere of rebirth, optimism, exploration — “Man is the measure of things”

b. Secular Europe begins to break the shackles of religious domination

    D. Portuguese exploration led others

1.    Encouraged by Prince Henry the Navigator

a.Initially, sought coastal points below the Sahara Desert  where Portugal could undercut Arab traders

and bring in profits.

b.Find water route to Asia (late 14th c.)

2.    Bartholomeu Dias rounded southern tip of Africa in 1488 in search of route to Asia.

3.   1498 — Vasco da Gama reached India; brought back some treasures creating 
European thirst for eastern goods. Opened the door for Portugal’s empire in the East.

4.   Pietro Cabral 
      a.    Discovered east coast of Brazil during 2nd failed voyage to India. 
      b.    Brazil eventually became a colony 
5.    Florentine Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) 
      a.    In 1501-02, he detailed his exploration in Brazil 
      b.    A German geographer honored Vespucci’s false claim to have been the first 
            to travel to Brazil, and named the new area “America.” 
6.   Portugal eventually est. trade stations in India, Africa, China, E. Indies.


    E.    Spanish exploration

           1.    Christopher Columbus (Italian explorer) 
                   a.    Spain eager to compete with Portugal. Queen Isabella & King Ferdinand

support Columbus. 
                   b.    Columbus’ motives:

i.Religion: believed world would end in 1648 and God would make Gospel

available to all mankind before last days. He could bring on the Millenium

and become a saint.

                        ii.    Wealth

       c.  Columbus landed on island in the Bahamas on Oct.12, 1492.

  • ·Believed he had reached East Indies (east of India on the Indian Ocean).

       d.  Moved on to Hispanola where Arawoks were friendly; had tobacco & gold.

            — Arawok Indians virtually exterminated by Columbus and his followers 
       e.   Until his death in 1506, Columbus maintained he had reached the “Indies.”


Critical Thinking Question: How should Columbus’s discovery be viewed — triumphant or genocidal? 

            2.   Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) 
                    a.     Spain secured its claim to Columbus’s discoveries 
                    b.    New World divided: Portugal got Brazil + territory in Africa & Asia; Spanish 
                            dominated N. & S. America. 
                    c.    Spain thus never had access to West African slave trade. 
            3.    Motives for discovery: Lure of gold and conversion of pagan natives to Christianity. 
            4.    Spanish discoverers: 
                    a.    Vasco Nunez Balboa discovered Pacific Ocean off of Panama in 1513. 
                    b.    Ferdinand Magellan sailed around S. America but killed by natives in 
                          Philippines. Ship continued on: first circumnavigation of the globe in 1522. 
                    c.    Ponce de Leon discovered Florida (thought it was an island) in 1513 seeking 
                           the fountain of youth. Died by an Indian arrow. 
                    d.    Francisco Coronado in search of golden cities traveled through Arizona, N. 
                           Mexico, Colorado, Kansas and perhaps Nebraska. 
                    e.    Juan Cabrillo — sailed as far north as Oregon, discovered San Diego Bay. 
                            —  Laid basis for Spain’s claims to northern Pacific Coast of North America. 
                    f.    By 1519, Spain had gained little economically from exploration. 
5.    Conquerors — conquistadores 
                  a.    Hernando de Soto in a gold seeking expedition in 1539-42 crossed Mississippi

River north of Arkansas; treated Indians badly. 
                            — Explored much of the southwest, including Georgia, the Carolinas, 
                                Tennessee, far west as Arkansas) 
                    b.    Hernando Cortes conquered the Aztecs in 1519-1521 
                            — Moctezuma’s envoys thought Cortes was god Quetzalcoatl 
                    c.    Francisco Pizarro defeated Incas in 1532; vast amounts of gold & silver 
                    d.    Spanish invaders enslaved Indians; forced labor digging for precious metals.


6.    Long-term Impact of Spanish Conquest 
                    a.    Intermarriage created distinctive Latin American culture of mestizos: Indian &

                    b.    Empire stretched from California and Florida to the tip of South America. 
                            i.    St. Augustine fortress erected (1565): oldest European settlement in U.S. 
                                   — Purpose: keep French out of Spanish southeast territory & protect sea 
                                       lanes in the Caribbean. 
                            ii.    Founded province of New Mexico in 1609 — Santa Fe became capital. 
                                   — Mission system established in 17th century — Dominican friars 
                            iii.   1716, mission system established in Texas (incl. San Antonio– later

the Alamo) 
                            iv.    California 
                                   — Spain concerned about Britain & Russia in N. America after 1763. 
                                   —Father Junipero Serra founded first mission in San Diego in 1769
                                   — 20 missions followed with 4 presidios — Franciscan friars

c.    Transplanted laws, religion and language and laid foundations for a score of

Spanish-speaking countries.

  6.    “Black Legend”: false view held by other Europeans that only Spain “killed for

         Christ,” enslaved Indians, stole their gold, infected them with diseases, and

left nothing but misery behind.


V.France in North America

A.French exploration

1. Giovanni da Verrazano, 1524: sailed American coast from Carolina to Maine.

        — Probably the first European to see New York harbor.

2. Jacques Cartier explored up the St. Lawrence River in 1530s.

3. In response, Spain erected fort St. Augustine, Florida, (1565) to keep

French out of interior & Caribbean.

4. Samuel de Champlain “father of New France” established Quebec in 1608

(a year after the English founded Jamestown in Virginia)

B.Of the European powers, the French were the most successful in creating an

effective trading relationship with the Indians.

1.British settlers sought to remove or exterminate Native Americans

2.Spanish sought to Christianize Indians and use them for forced labor.

nUtilized the encomienda, hacienda and later, the mission system.

3.   The French became great gift givers (the key to getting on with Indians who

based inter-tribal relationships on gift giving) during late 17th century. 
                    i.    Trade not seen as a transaction or contract (like in Europe). 
                    ii.    Trade seen by Indians as a continuing process. 
                    iii.    When a group stopped trading w/ another, it was tantamount to declaring war.

C.The beaver trade led to exploration of much of North America;

(heavy demand for fur in European fashion)

1.Coureurs de bois (“runners of the woods”) – Rough frontiersmen who sought

to tap the lucrative fur trade.

2.French seamen – voyageurs — recruited Indians into the fur trade

D.Jesuits: Catholic Missionaries who sought to convert Indians and save them

from the fur trappers. 
1.    Some were brutally killed by Indians (although in the eyes of Indians, Jesuits

held up best to torture and were thus more respected). 
2. Played a vital role as explorers and geographers.

E.Other explorers 
 1. Antoine Cadillac — founded Detroit in 1701 
     — Aimed to keep English settlers out of the Ohio Valley 
 2. Robert de La Salle — Sailed from Quebec, down through the Great Lakes,

and down the Mississippi River in 1682 with the help of Indian guides. 
a. Sought to prevent Spanish expansion into Gulf of Mexico region 
b. Coined the name “Louisiana” in honor of Louis XIV 
3. French establish posts in the Mississippi region

(New Orleans most important—1718) 
a. Attempt to block Spanish expansion into the Gulf of Mexico 
b. Forts and trading posts in Illinois country: Kaskaskia, Cahokia, & Vincennes 
— Large amounts of grain sent down the Mississippi River for shipment to the 
West Indies and Europe.

F.Impact of French (and British) on eastern woodlands Indians: decimation by diseases,

gun warfare & alcoholism
1. Many Indians saw any contact with Europeans as dangerous and catastrophic. 
2. European weapons deeply intensified Indian warfare in the eastern woodlands

during last three decades of the 17th century. 
    a.    Resulted in the depopulation of the Ohio Valley in a matter of decades. 
    b.    Iroquois waged war on the Huron and Algonquin tribes. 
    c.    Later, French armed Hurons & Algonquins; Iroquois forced to neutrality. 
    d.    Iroquois turned to diplomacy with Europeans after 1700 
    e.    By 1760s, Indians in the region had agreed not to kill each other. 
           — Revitalization: hoped that banding together and eliminating alcohol could 
               revitalize Native American life and protect them against European invaders.

VI.    England’s search for Empire

A.Major causes leading to British colonial impulse

1. Eventual peace with Spain provided opportunities overseas without harassment

2. Population growth provided workers/ potential colonists

3. Unemployment (economic opportunity), farm land, adventure, markets,

    political freedom, religious freedom, social change.

4. Joint-stock companies provided financial means: investors pooled resources for

sea expeditions.

B.    Competition with Spain and later France

1.   Protestant England vs. Catholic Spain during late 16th century.

2. John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) in 1497-98 explored coast of Newfoundland to

Virginia for the English crown.

         — Found no passage to India; no settlement; much fishing

3. Frobisher, 1576: Explored coast of Labrador

4. Sir Francis Drake (“sea dogs”) pirated Spanish ships around the globe; netted

heavy profits to his financial backers including Queen Elizabeth.

5. Attempts to colonize in the face of Spanish glory

a. 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert attempted to colonize New Foundland but

died while at sea.

b. 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh (Gilbert’s half-brother) led 115 men, women & children

to Roanoke Island off coast of VA; mysteriously vanished.

6. 1588 — British defeated the Spanish Armada (Elizabeth vs. Phillip II)

a. Spain attempted to invade England with a massive fleet of 130 ships.

b. Helped ensure England’s naval dominance in the North Atlantic and later

the Atlantic sea routes to North America.

c. Seen by some historians as beginning of the fall of the Spanish Empire.

d. English national spirit emerged

7. 1604 — Peace treaty signed between England and Spain


VII.Results of contact between Native-Americans and Europeans

A.    For Native Americans

        1.    Genocide: By 1600, nearly 90% of Native American population perished.

              a.    European diseases, e.g., smallpox, yellow fever, malaria, most destructive.

               b.    Central Am. & Caribbean pop. in 1519 = perhaps 25 mil; 1 mil in 1605.

         2.    European impact on culture — cattle, swine and horses, firearms.

                — Great Plains tribes–Apache, Blackfoot, and Sioux–transformed via horses

B. For Europeans

1. Global empires for 1st time in human history.

2. Explosion of capitalism

3. Revolution in diet

                a. Corn, beans, tomatoes & esp. potato lead to improved diet = higher mortality

= higher population = bigger push for emigration. Revolutionized

international economy.

b. Stimulants: coffee, cocoa, and tobacco

C.    Contributions of Mother Countries to North America

1. England — Democratic forms of local gov’t; tradition of hard-working,

zealous individuals, English language

2. France — Language, culture, and religion introduced to Canada and Louisiana

and to many Indians west of Appalachians; large-scale trade with Indians

3. Spain — Schools, hospitals, and printing presses established by missionaries;

Spanish language in the Southwest; teaching of Christianity and handicrafts to

Native Americans.


VIII.    English History as a backdrop to colonization of North America in 17th century

— Stuart line of Kings

James I (r. 1603-1625)

Charles I (r. 1625-1642)

1642-1648 — English Civil War

Interregnum under Oliver Cromwell (1648-1658)

Restoration: Charles II (1660-1685)

James II (r. 1685-1688)

“Glorious Revolution” (1688) — William & Mary; Bill of Rights (1689)


Major Concepts:

1. Native American civilization

  • ·Societies more highly developed in Meso-America & South America; 

North American Indians were mostly semi-sedentary.

  • ·Important North American tribes: Pueblo, Moundbuilders, 

Creek & Cherokee, Iroquois


2.What major factors motivated European exploration?

oIncreased power of nation-state

oDesire for products in East Asia– Search for new sea routes to bypass middle-eastern middle-men; Desire to break monopoly of Italian commercial cities

oReligious competition: Catholicism vs. Protestantism

oScience and technology provided the means

oRenaissance spirit 

3.    What major social factors engendered the British colonization?

  • Peace with Spain
  • Population growth
  • Unemployment, search for adventure, markets, & religious freedom
  • Joint-stock companies
4.    Impact of Contact on both Native Americans &Europeans
oGenocide of Indians

oIntroduction of cattle & horses revolutionized some Indiancultures.

oEuropeans saw global empires for the first time, the rise of capitalism, and a revolution in diet.



5.Summary of relations between European colonial powers & Indians

oSpanish: sought to Catholicize, control and use Indians for forced labor (mission system, encomienda, hacienda)

oFrench: sought trade relations with Indians; Jesuits sought to convert them to Catholicism

oEnglish: sought to remove Indians or exterminate them.


Bailey, Thomas A., Kennedy, David M.: The American Pageant, 10th edition, Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath, 1994

College Board, Advanced Placement Course Description: History — United States, European History, College Entrance Examination Board, 1996

Foner, Eric & Garraty, John A., editors: The Reader’s Companion to American History, Boston: Houghton MifflinCompany, 1991

Josephy, Jr., Alvin M., 500 Nations: An Illustrated History of North American Indians, Alfred A Knopf, New York, 1994.

Kellogg, William O., Barron’s AP United States History, 5th edition, Hauppauge, New York: Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.,1996

Loewen, James W., Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong,  New York: The New Press, 1995

McDuffie, Jerome, Piggrem, Gary, Woodworth, Steven E.: Advanced Placement Examination, Piscataway, New Jersey: Research and Education Association, 1994

Murrin, John et al, Liberty, Equality, and Power: A History of the American People, 2nd ed., Fort Worth:  Harcourt Brace 1999

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Schultz, Constance G., The American History Videodisc Master Guide, Annapolis, Maryland: Instruction Resources Corporation, 1995

Waldman, Carl, Atlas of the North American Indian, New York: Facts on File, 1985